## TEKS

## Articles Cited

Bell, R. L., Smetana, L., & Binns, I. (2005). Simplifying inquiry instruction.

Jones, S. (1999). Dysgraphia accommodations and modifications.

Krajcik, J. S., Czerniak, C. L., Czerniak, C. M., & Berger, C. F. (2003).

Lin, E. (2005). Strategies to increase active discussion and thinking for all students.

Rief, S. (2008).

Trimarchi, R. (2002). Drawing Out the Quiet Voices: Making Science Lectures Accessible to All Students.

*The Science Teacher*,*72*(7), 30-33.Jones, S. (1999). Dysgraphia accommodations and modifications.

*Retrieved June*,*11*, 2006.Krajcik, J. S., Czerniak, C. L., Czerniak, C. M., & Berger, C. F. (2003).

*Teaching science in elementary and middle school classrooms: A project-based approach*. McGraw-Hill Humanities Social.Lin, E. (2005). Strategies to increase active discussion and thinking for all students.

*Science Scope*,*28*(5), 34-37.Rief, S. (2008).

*ADHD & Ld: Classroom Strategies at Your Fingertips*. NPR Inc.Trimarchi, R. (2002). Drawing Out the Quiet Voices: Making Science Lectures Accessible to All Students.

*Science Teacher*,*69*(1), 30-34.## Accommodations for students

In

*Dysgraphia accommodations and modifications,*Jones (1999) provides a large selection of possible accommodations for students with dysgraphia. Of those, allowing students to use alternative tools, such as typing their work and having additional time to do so, are among those incorporated in this lesson. This allows students to develop their ideas without the pressure of having to finish their work in a specific time frame. In*Drawing out the quiet voices: Making science lectures accessible to all students,*Trimarchi (2002) explains that four specific groups of students- second-language learners, females, low-income students, and students of color- appear to find lectures particularly challenging, and thus develops techniques for making lectures more accessible to all students. Trimarchi (2002) suggests that lectures be more interactive and allow for students to participate. We have incorporated benchmark lessons that introduce new concepts and simultaneously encourage student input and interaction throughout the unit. Rief (2008) also provides strategies and accommodations for students with ADHD. Among these, are having timed tasks, and placing students in cooperative learning groups. Color coding the worksheets is also an accommodation that is suggested for students with ADHD to keep their work organized. The development of our calendar, investigations and lessons address these two techniques. Altogether, while developed with these specific groups of students in mind, provide benefits for all students. Timed tasks in the classroom allow students to stay on task, and allowing them to have additional time when necessary also allows students to further reflect on their work. Cooperative learning groups and interactive lectures allow students to learn new concepts while keeping engaged and maintaining a supportive environment in the class.## Student Misconceptions

Free Body Diagrams

Equilibrium

Trigonometric Ratios

- Students may overlook the normal force, not understanding that there needs to be balanced forces.
- Students may not understand that the length of the vectors represent the magnitudes of the forces.

Equilibrium

- When adding forces, students can mix up what force is considered positive or negative in the system of equations, or not understand why either direction can be considered positive.

Trigonometric Ratios

- Students may not understand which side of the triangle is considered adjacent to the angle.
- Students may get the definitions of sine and cosine reversed and may use the wrong one.